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Faqs

Frequently Asked Questions about Chokes

What is a shotgun choke?
What are shotgun patterns?
Do you have samples of choke patterns; choke pattern photographs?
What chokes do I use with steel, bismuth or tungsten alloy shot?
What are the tiny notches on the end of some chokes?
What type of chokes does Beretta use?
What type of chokes does Benelli use?
Do you have a distributors list?


 

What is a shotgun choke?

A shotgun choke is simply a tapered constriction of the gun's bore at the muzzle end. The length of this constriction varies between the different shotgun makers but usually is not less than 1.5 nor more than 3 inches. This constriction is normally from .005-.045 (thousandths) of an inch, but in the case of special purpose tubes, it can be as much as .100 (thousandths) under bore size. With screw in chokes you can very easily change the degree of constriction by simply changing the choke. This allows the use of one shotgun for almost all shooting activities.

What are shotgun patterns?

Patterns are normally expressed with a name such as improved cylinder or as a percentage such as 50%. The patterns are always assumed to be measured at a distance of 40 yards. The exceptions to this are cylinder bore and skeet 1 chokes in all gauges and .410 bore shotguns in all choke sizes. These are measured at a distance of 25 yards. The following chart can be used as a general guide.

Name

#%

Constriction

Cylinder Bore

40

.000

Skeet 1

50

.005

Improved Cylinder

50

.010

Skeet 2

55

.015

Modified

60

.020

Improved Modified

63

.025

Full

65

.030

Extra Full

68

.040

Super Full

70

.045

Turkey

70+

.045+

The above chart is based on using premium field loads with #8 shot. Generally the larger size of shot you use the less degree of choke is needed to get an equivalent size pattern. High velocity or magnum loads normally do not pattern as well as lighter loads. The same load by different ammunition manufacturers may not pattern the same. As you can see, there are many things that can cause a shotgun to shoot a different pattern with the same choke constriction. Most chokes will shoot a pattern reasonably close to the marked size, but the only way to be absolutely sure of what your gun is doing is to "pattern" it. Use the loads you plan to shoot and try different chokes to get the pattern you want.

What chokes do I use with steel, bismuth or tungsten alloy shot?

Steel Shot

  • As a general rule when switching from lead to steel shot you would use a choke with one full degree less constriction.
  • If you want a full pattern with steel use a modified choke.
  • If you want a modified pattern with steel use an improved cylinder choke.
  • If you want an improved cylinder pattern with steel use a cylinder or skeet choke.
  • Do not use any choke tighter than modified constriction with steel shot unless the choke is specifically marked for use with steel shot.

Bismuth Shot

  • Use the same choke you would use with the appropriate size of lead shot.

Tungsten Alloy Shot

  • There are several different alloys available. These can vary to a large degree in their level of hardness. When using factory chokes I suggest you use nothing tighter than full choke unless it is approved for tungsten shot.

As a general rule most Trulock chokes are rated for Hevi Shot, Hevi 13, Federal Heavyweight and Winchester Hi Density tungsten alloys.

What are the tiny notches on the end of some chokes?

They identify the degree of the choke. See our Choke identification page for more information.

What type of chokes does Beretta use?

Beretta uses four different chokes, Mobil, Optima, Optima Plus, and Optima HP. See our Choke identification page for more details.

What type of chokes does Benelli use?

Benelli uses three different chokes, Mobil, Crio, and Crio Plus. See our Choke identification page for more information

Do you have choke pattern photograph samples?

 

Browning Invector Plus
Factory Full/Steel Choke

This choke is designated by Browning as "Full for Steel"
#2 steel shot
64% at 40 yards

 

Trulock Browning Invector Plus
Extended Precision Hunter Modified Choke

#2 steel shot
91% at 40 yards

 

Browning Invector Plus
Factory Modified Choke

#8 lead shot
41% at 40 yards

 

Trulock Browning Invector Plus
Extended Precision Hunter Modified Choke

#8 lead shot
67% at 40 yards

 

Trulock Precision Hunter
Extended Improved Cylinder

Beretta/Benelli style
Fired from a Franchi 712
#8 lead shot
52% at 40 yards

 

Trulock Precision Hunter
Extended Modified

Beretta/Benelli style
Fired from a Franchi 712
#8 lead shot
61% at 40 yards

 

Trulock Precision Hunter
Extended Full

Beretta/Benelli style
Fired from a Franchi 712
#8 lead shot
71% at 40 yards

 

Trulock Pattern Plus
Flush Modified

Browning Invector Plus style
Fired from a Browning BPS
#2 steel shot
77% at 40 yards

Do you have a distributors list?

Iowa

Brownells
200 South Front Street
Montezuma IA. 50171
Order: (800) 741-0015
www.brownells.com
Wholesale/Retail

Kentucky

Whittaker Guns
6976 W. Louisville Lane
Owensboro KY. 42301
Phone: (270) 229-0140
Fax: (270) 229-9139
www.whittakerguns.com
Wholesale/Retail

Louisiana

Sports South
P.O. Box 51367
Shreveport LA. 71135-1367
Toll free: (800) 388-3845
www.sportssouthinc.com
Wholesale Only

Missouri

Midway USA
5875 West Van Horn Tavern Road
Columbia MO. 65203-9274
Toll free: (800) 243-3220
CustomerService@midwayusa.com
www.midwayusa.com
Wholesale/Retail

Able Ammo
1603 11th St.
Hunstville, TX 77340
Toll free: (800) 720-3275
www.ableammo.com
Wholesale/Retail
 

Carter's Country
11886 Wilcrest
Houston, TX 77031
Phone: (281) 879-1466
www.carterscountry.net
Wholesale/Retail
 

Carter's Country
8927 Katy Freeway
Houston, TX 77024
Phone: (713) 461-1844
www.carterscountry.net
Wholesale/Retail
  

Carter's Country
2120 Shaver
Pasadena, TX 77502
Phone: (713) 475-2222
www.carterscountry.net
Wholesale/Retail  
 

Carter's Country
6310 Treaschwig Road
Spring, TX 77373
Phone: (281) 443-8393
www.carterscountry.net
Wholesale/Retail
NOTE: This location has a public shooting range.
 
 

Canadian Distributors:
Ontario

Global Technologies
682 Glen Forrest Blvd.
Waterloo, Ontario
Canada N2L 4K6
Phone: (519) 884-9392
jclosen224@rogers.com
Wholesale/Retail
 

Quebec

Londero Sports
349 BLV DU Seminaire N.
St. Jean Sur Richelien
Quebec Canada J3B8C5
Toll free (877) 349-2332
www.arcinter.com
Wholesale/Retail

International Distributors:

Australia

Fishing and Outdoor World
RSL Building 27 Cavenagh St.
Darwin, NT 0800
Wholesale/Retail

Cyprus

SKB Chokes
Stochos Hunting Equipment Ltd.
Larnakos Ave. 57 A-B
Aglantzia, Nocisia 2101
Wholesale/Retail

Finland

Eräliike Riistamaa
Oravannahkatori 1
FI-02120 Espoo
Finland
Phone: +358-9-4110 1290
amaa@riistamaa.fi
Wholesale/Retail

New Zealand

New Zealand Ammunition Company, Ltd.
10/1 Nicolaus Street
Upper Hutt
Wholesale/Retail

Romania

Romania Hunter Club
Mocanu Adrian
Bucharest - Romania
0723619968
www.hunterclub.ro
Wholesale/Retail

United Kingdom

Garlands
Raddle Lane, Edingale
NR. Tamworth Staffs
B79 9JR UK
james.garland@garlands.uk.com
Wholesale/Retail